Application and inspection form for approval to incinerate animal by-products

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Disposal of fallen stock

The disposal of fallen stock and ABPs not intended for human consumption is regulated in England by the Animal By-Products (Enforcement) (England) Regulations 2011. Similar legislation applies in the rest of the UK. These Regulations enforce the directly applicable requirements of the EU Animal By-Products Regulation 1069/2009 (PDF Document) and EU Implementing Regulation 142/2011 (PDF Document).

Animal by-products (ABPs) are entire animal bodies, parts of animals, products of animal origin or other products obtained from animals that are not fit or intended for human consumption. They must be dealt with in accordance with strict regulations designed to prevent harm to people, animals and the environment. ABPs are categorised by the risks they pose and the methods used to deal with them.

This guide explains the different categories of ABPs, how they can be collected, stored and transported, and how they can be treated, used and disposed of. Your Animal Health and Veterinary Laboratories Agency (AHVLA) Office and the Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (Defra) can give advice on dealing with ABPs.

Types and treatments of animal by-products

ABPs are made up of:

  • whole animal carcasses
  • parts of carcasses
  • products of animal origin not intended for human consumption

Types of ABPs include:

  • catering waste (including used cooking oil) from commercial and household kitchens
  • former foodstuffs of animal origin from food manufacturers and retailers
  • butcher and slaughterhouse waste
  • blood
  • feathers
  • wool
  • hides and skins
  • fallen stock
  • dead pet animals
  • dead zoo animals
  • hunt trophies
  • manure
  • ova, embryos and semen (when not destined for breeding purposes)

ABPs are classified into three categories – based on their potential risk to animals, the public and the environment.

Category 1 ABPsCategory 2 ABPs Category 3 ABPs

Category 1 material is the highest risk, and consists principally of material that is considered a TSE risk, such as Specified Risk Material (those parts of an animal considered most likely to harbour a disease such as BSE, e.g. bovine brain & spinal cord).

Dead pet animals, zoo and experimental animals are also classified as category 1 material. The risk from these animals may also be high, for example due to the level of veterinary drugs and residues they may contain; the fact that adequate diagnoses of the exact cause of death of exotic animals can be difficult to achieve and; some species are known to harbour TSEs and may carry other diseases.

Wild animals may be classified as category 1 material when they are suspected of carrying a disease communicable to humans or animals. Catering waste from means of international transport (i.e. which has come from outside the EU) is also category 1 due to the risk from exotic diseases.

These materials must be disposed of by incineration or processing (pressure rendering) followed by incineration. Pet, zoo, and experimental animals are also classified as Category 1, although you are allowed to bury your pet animals. You can contact your local authority for guidance on pet burials.

Since 4 March 2011 zoos have been able to apply for an authorisation from the AHVLA to allow them to feed Category 1 fallen stock – such as entire deceased antelope, zebras, etc. – to their carnivorous animals (e.g. big cats).

Category 2 material is also high risk material and includes fallen stock, manure and digestive tract content. Category 2 is also the default status of any animal by-product not defined as either category 1 or category 3 material. For more information, see the guide on disease notification: duties of farmers.

You can dispose of Category 2 materials by incineration and rendering, or at an authorised landfill site if previously processed to the required standard. You are permitted to recycle some Category 2 ABPs for uses other than feed after appropriate treatment, such as:

  • biogas
  • composting
  • oleo-chemical products

For more information, see the guide on minimising farm waste, composting and recycling.

Category 3 materials are low risk materials. Category 3 material includes parts of animals that have been passed fit for human consumption in a slaughterhouse but which are not intended for consumption, either because they are not parts of animals that we normally eat (hides, hair, feathers, bones etc.) or for commercial reasons.

Category 3 material also includes former foodstuffs (waste from food factories and retail premises such as butchers and supermarkets). Catering waste, including domestic kitchen waste is category 3 material.

You can use or dispose of Category 3 ABPs in various ways, including:

  • incineration
  • rendering
  • authorised landfill, following processing
  • composting
  • anaerobic digestion
  • being used in an approved pet food plant
  • being used in a technical plant

Legislation that incinerators must comply with is dependent upon which country the incinerator will be operated in.

United Kingdom

The incinerator must adhere to the:

Waste Incineration Directive (WID) EC 2000/76 – (PDF Document)

CE Certified, Achieve 850°C for 2 seconds or 1100°

European Union Candidate Countries

We recommend that the incinerator should be:

  • EU Animal By-Products Regulation (EC) No 1069/2009 compliant
  • Elsewhere please contact us to discuss your countries requirements.

Non-European Union Compliant Incinerators

We are able to supply non-European standard incinerators. If you would like more information on the legislation that affects you please contact us.